Friday, 30 May 2008
Recently Oboe Classics sent me this unusual but highly interesting CD in a DVD box! This is no ordinary production – in fact is a major scholarly edition that explores one of the most impressive 20th century works for oboe solo. My review for MusicWeb looked at what was in the package – and briefly this was a major 20,000 word essay on the piece and its performance, three full performance of this work – including one by the work’s dedicatee. And finally the working ‘sketches’ for this composition are presented for the first time.
I concluded my review by wondering whether this particular format was a blueprint for the future – my views on this were better expressed by a friend who said “…that she hoped that Oboe Classics would play a long game: she explained that this CD must be available for many years and not be deleted after the first ‘pressing’ else the scholarly value will be dissipated in a few short months. She felt that it was a major reference document that needs to be regarded as an important contribution to Britten studies. I concur absolutely with her thoughts.”
Please read my full review at:-
Britten Ovid Metamorphoses on Oboe Classics CC2017
Thursday, 29 May 2008
Apple-Blossom Time was dedicated to the composer/artist S.H. Braithwaite. It is perhaps useful to present a few facts about this little know artist. He was born Sam Hartley Braithwaite on 20 July 1883 at Egremont in Cumberland. He went up to the Royal Academy of Music where he studied performance and composition. His first interest was the piano although he also studied the clarinet. He was later to become a professor at the R.A.M.
Philip Scowcroft has informed us that Braithwaite composed a number of works for the piano including an English Dance and a Suite of Ancient Dances. He composed an Overture for military band for the Pageant of Empire at Crystal Palace. Apparently most of his works were for orchestra and included an overture The Fighting Temeraire, an Idyll, an Oriental Fragment, By the Hot Lake, a scherzo, Night By Dalegarth Bridge and - perhaps an echo of Albert Ketèlbey - Near an Eastern Bazaar. Braithwaite had begun life as a composer but eventually decided to concentrate on painting and etching. He lived in Bournemouth until his death in 1947.
Bax’s piano music often exploit a significant practical knowledge of the piano along with a distinctly romantic personality and a vivid imagination. A variety of influences lie behind his pianistic style including an early visit to Russia and an understanding of Irish literature and Celtic folk music. In addition there are a number of passages that could be described as ‘impressionistic.’
The formal structure of Apple-Blossom Time is as straightforward as one of Haydn’s minuets, yet the chromatic harmonic language is typical of Bax’s writing at this period: the key signature is ostensibly G major. There is an almost kaleidoscopic colouring which again suggests the work of Hornell. The work opens by creating an enigmatic spring like atmosphere with perhaps ‘a glimpse of graceful, delicate apple blossoms as seen in their spring glory’. Great use is made of spread chords and complex chromatic writing. It is signed to be written ‘fresh and rhythmical.’Yet the middle section is written in 7:4 time and, although it is meant to be played ‘gay and playful’, is actually reflective and reminiscent of the loss of innocence. After the music virtually comes to a standstill and then with the introduction of a much deeper mood the piece ends with a certain sadness and feeling of loss. The piece lasts just under 3 ½ minutes.
Interestingly, Bax alludes to this opening melody in his Spring Fire (1913) as a part of the ‘Full Day’ movement.
Christopher Palmer describes Apple-Blossom Time as “now light and delicate, now exuberant, the piece has a happy open air feeling.” However this mood is darkens in the last page and the Celtic feel takes over – the coda is marked to be played slow and sad.
The critic of the Monthly Musical Record reviewing this piece in September 1915 suggests that it is a “correlative of the characteristic canvas work of Mr E.W. Hornell”. Hornell was an Australian born artist who moved to Kirkcudbright in Scotland. He was to specialise in Celtic and Japanese imagery –and pictures of orchards! The reviewer suggests that “summer happiness, trees in full blossom, happy carefree childhood, [and] luxurious natural setting”, all appear in the piano music of Bax as clearly as they are seen in the pictures of Hornell.
The first performance of Apple-Blossom Time was given by Phyllis Emanuel at the Steinway Hall on 15 November 1915: this was a War Emergency Entertainments All-British Concert. The work was published by Augener in 1915.
Discography for Apple-Blossom-Time
Iris Loveridge. Lyrita LP: RCS 30 (m)—not issued.
Malcolm Binns. Pearl LP: SHE 565.
Eric Parkin. Chandos TC: ABTD 1372; CD: CHAN 8732; Chandos 10132(four-CD set)
Painting by Edward Atkinson Hornell, In the Woods
Tuesday, 27 May 2008
The Suite is in three movements - Revels in Hogsnorton; The Blue Poole and March: Rustic Cavalry. Revels in Hogsnorton derives from a mythical village created by the popular comedian Gillie Potter. It is a 'thirties ‘Much-Binding-in-the-Marsh’. This is an attractive waltz with a distinctly ‘modern’ trio.
The second movement is truly lovely. The title, The Blue Poole is a concatenation of two beauty spots. The Blue Pool on the Isle of Purbeck and of course Poole harbour itself. The movement opens with a brief upward phrase for saxophone. Then there is a cadenza for solo violin. There is a rocking motion in the accompaniment; a gorgeous tune is given to saxophones. The vibraphone is heard in the background. Muted brass lead to a variation of the tune; a harp glissando leads into a middle section. Then suddenly it is up-tempo. The xylophone is busy with figurations. Then the mood music returns, first for strings, then into the languorous theme- even the two solo violins seem slightly out of tune- just as it may have been in some far off performance. The movement ends quietly, with a vibraphone added note chord. It is a perfect picture of lazy days by the seaside.
The last movement is entitled Rustic Cavalry – seemingly related to Mascagni’s opera Cavalleria Rusticana. This march has been well described as ‘rousing and swashbuckling’ – and it certainly is. Elgar, however, is the musical inspiration rather than the Italian operatic composer. Malcolm Riley, the Whitlock scholar, has noted allusions to Froissart and mentions the fact the Radio Times billed this work as the Rustic Chivalry March. Elgar had prefixed his score of Froissart with ‘When chivalry lifted high her lance on high.’ Listeners have also detected references to the First World War Song – 'It’s a Long Way to Tipperary'. I do not quite understand what it is doing in a Wessex Suite; it does not really help with tone painting of a holiday by the sea. However, perhaps the clue lies in its description as swashbuckling. Is it meant to refer to things piratical and nautical? Who knows. But it rounds off what is an attractive and thoroughly enjoyable work.
Percy Whitlock's Wessex Suite on Marco Polo (Naxos)
Monday, 26 May 2008
I can still recall the excitement when I bought the vinyl edition of this CD some thirty years ago. I have never really listened to much chamber music at that time – certainly English chamber works were virtually a closed book to me. I look forward to listening to this CD over the next few days.
Meanwhile, John Quinn has written a fine review of this recording for MusicWeb International. He begins his review with a quotation from the late Christopher Palmer who describes Howells memorably as "the last of the great English romantics whose tongues were loosened by folksong". Mr. Quinn continues, “The three works gathered on this CD are all suffused with a wonderful English character. Although no folksongs are used the thematic material is manifestly influenced by the treasure trove of native popular melody that had been so effectively mined, preserved and liberated by Vaughan Williams, Holst and others.”
After a number of paragraphs describing the musical content of each of the three works he gallantly says, “In her enthusiastic review of this disc my colleague Em Marshall summed up the quality and calibre of these works most eloquently. I can do no better than to quote her summary: "There is something incredibly English about these works, and they sum up all the poetry and beauty, and, occasionally, the melancholy and harshness, of the English countryside, depicting it in all its moods and through all forces of nature."
He concludes his review by reinforcing the point that “This is another reissue from Lyrita that’s as welcome and self-recommending as it is important. All admirers of Herbert Howells’ music will want to have these first rate performances in their collection.”
Friday, 23 May 2008
Most of these works are new to me. I am hoping to be able to hear them myself before too long. However, in the meantime Michael Cookson has provided an excellent review on MusicWeb International.
He begins his review by a statement of the sadly obvious -“A Lyrita disc of reissued recordings of music by three rather enigmatic English composers all born at the beginning of the twentieth century. The reputations of this trio are held in far higher regard by music academics than is reflected in the number of performances their works receive.”
It is only necessary to have a brief look at any of the CD on-line catalogues such as ARKIV or Crotchet to see how true his words are. In Berkeley’s case it is unbelievable that there are only two versions of his Symphonies generally available. They are masterworks that in any other country would be highly regarded.
Michael then proceeds with a very detailed and scholarly exploration of the works on this CD. He concludes his review by simply stating that “this is superbly performed chamber music, away from the mainstream and providing considerable rewards.”
Wednesday, 21 May 2008
O, the month of May, the merry month of May,
So frolic, so gay, and so green, so green, so green!
O, and then did I unto my true love say,
Sweet Peg, thou shalt be my summer's Queen.
Now the nightingale, the pretty nightingale,
The sweetest singer in all the forest quire,
Entreats thee, sweet Peggy, to hear thy true love's tale:
Lo, yonder she sitteth, her breast against a briar.
But O, I spy the cuckoo, the cuckoo, the cuckoo;
See where she sitteth: come away, my joy:
Come away, I prithee, I do not like the cuckoo;
Should sing when my Peggy and I kiss and toy.
O, the month of May, the merry month of May,
So frolic, so gay, and so green, so green, so green;
And then did I unto my true love say,
Sweet Peg, thou shalt be my summer's Queen.
The sentiment of the song is a little more complex that at first appears. The poet has decided that his ‘Sweet Peg’ would be his summer queen. He rejoices in the fact that winter is over and the whole of nature is ‘so green, so green, so green’! He hears the song of the nightingale who is surely the ‘sweetest singer in the forest quire’. Yet this bird has her breast pressed against the briar rose and is in danger, perhaps, of hurting herself. The poet also hears the cry of the cuckoo and is somewhat distressed by this. He does not want to be near this bird as he and Peg ‘kiss and toy.’ Yet the dark side of this poem is a fear that the poet has of being cuckolded. Finally he returns to the opening verse to put out of his mind these negative thoughts.
Fiona Richards notes that the theme of an ‘Elizabethan Spring’ was one that was often present in the composer’s output. She mentions his setting of Shakespeare’s ‘When daffodil’s begin to appear, Thomas Nashe’s ‘Spring, the sweet spring’ and the present song.
Ireland sets these words with great precision. He basically uses the same melody for each stanza- but varies the detail to fit the sense of the words. Sylvia Townsend Warner writing in her diary about the Ireland programme at the BBC thinks that the Dekker song is “very good, and [an] excited talking vocal curve, almost like hens)”.
The song is ostensibly written in E major –although the right hand part does not seem to realise this for much of the work. The composer asks for this song to be taken at ‘allegro con anima’ which has a tendency to sound like ‘quick lively patter’. The accompaniment is successful yet it is actually very difficult. The left hand plays a number of figures which are effectively in the ‘home’ key. Yet they are subject to range of variation which maintains the interest. The harmonies appear darker when supporting the singer’s thoughts the cuckoo.
‘C.W’ writing in the December 1928 edition of the Musical Times points out that although no-one denies the suggestive power of varied harmonies applied to a vocal melody there is appoint where it is dangerous to go beyond. However he continues by saying that the composer can do this effectively and cites the present song as a good example. He notes that at the “end of each verse the accompaniment makes a wild plunge away from the tonality of the voice part, followed by a wild plunge back again for the cadence.” He thinks that the “excursion is so brief, and is so clearly the climax of the verse that the effect is exhilarating.” He concludes his review by noting that “the numerous rough dissonances are quite in keeping with the bucolic text, and that the song is a strikingly energetic piece of work.”
William Mann writes that this song is “single minded in invention” and encourages the listener to consider the “bass ostinato, the vocal articulation of the poetic text beautifully varied and natural (as if spoken, but better than that, pitched in revealing music).
The first broadcast performance of this work was given on the BBC London radio station on 19 April 1928 at 7:45 pm. George Parker was the baritone and the composer played the piano. The concert on the wireless included music played by Albert Sammons and Beatrice Harrison. The other works performed at this all Ireland recital included his Cello Sonata, the Piano Sonatina, the Second Piano Trio and settings of poems by Thomas Hardy and A.E. Houseman. The first performance dates are not known.
Interestingly there only appears to be one version of this song currently in the CD catalogues – it appears on volume two of the Lyrita re-issue of the Songs. It is sung by the baritone Benjamin Luxon with Alan Rowlands playing the piano.
John Ireland Songs on Lyrita SRCD.2261
Tuesday, 20 May 2008
Brown's competence has resulted in a short suite that is 'pure ' RVW. It epitomised all that is best in the composer's toolkit. However, it is not just a pure transcription of the pieces - an academic exercise - but a re-presentation of this exquisite material. For listeners who wish there were more pieces like the Fantasia on Greensleeves this is a gold mine.
Charterhouse Suite on Naxos
Monday, 19 May 2008
I recently had the pleasure of reviewing this CD for MusicWeb International. I opened my review by shriving my soul…“I must confess that at the age of about 16 I fell in love with Peers Coetmore. I recall buying the original Lyrita vinyl album of the Cello Concerto from a shop called Cuthbertson’s in Cambridge Street, Glasgow. On the cover of that LP was a lovely photograph of Moeran and Peers looking out over a hilly landscape which I think was Hergest Ridge. It fulfilled all my youthful romantic notions of what a woman should be like: one who loved the British landscape, was a consummate musician and an attractive lady. Since that time the Cello Concerto has been my number one Desert Island Disc. It has never, in 38 years, been usurped from that position. In spite of the fact of a certain critical downer on Peer’s playing, it will always remain for me the definitive performance of this masterly work…”
At the end of my review I suggest that “it is not possible to read a definite programme into the Cello Concerto or any of the works written for Miss Coetmore: they are not ‘autobiographies’. However, it is clear that in many pages and passages of these works Ernest John Moeran expressed the genuine, deep love and devotion he felt for Peers.”
Please read my complete review here Moeran Cello Concerto on Lyrita
Saturday, 17 May 2008
Mr John Ireland was born on August 13, 1879, at Inglewood, Bowden, Cheshire. His father, Alexander Ireland, came of a Fifeshire family. He was the editor of the Manchester Examiner and Times, being also an author of considerable note, sharing the friendship of such men as Carlyle, Emerson, Leigh Hunt, and others. His mother, Anne Nicholson (from a Cumberland family), also possessed high literary and critical gifts. The son was educated at Leeds Grammar School, and also received private tuition. Later on he became a student and scholar at the R.C.M, being a pupil of Sir Charles Stanford in composition. Mr Ireland left the R.C.M. in 1901, and graduated for Mus.Bac. at Durham University in 1905.
Candidness is a characteristic which one would expect form an old North-Country family. This being so, it is significant that Mr. Ireland, in complying with our request for a complete list of his compositions, does so only for the purpose of revealing the process through which he arrived at his period of mature work. He openly discards all of his works before the year 1908 (when he was twenty-nine), except for a few trifling pieces which happen to be published. This discarded work he calls merely “learning the business” of a composer- technique, powers of expression, style etc: here is the list:
Discarded works (1895-1906)
Trio for Piano, Violin, and Cello, in A minor
Variations on an Irish tune for Piano
Sonata in C minor for Piano
String Quartet in D minor (Scholarship Piece, R.C.M.)
The following works are R.C.M. Studentship Works:
Variations in F sharp minor for Piano
Variations in E flat for Piano
Sonata in C minor for Violin and Piano
Mass in Dorian Mode for Four Voices (strict style of Palestrina)
“Vexilla Regis” Choral Work
Sextet for Strings and Wind in D
Sea Idyll for Piano
Quartet for Strings in C minor
“Midsummer” Prelude for Orchestra
“Tritons” Symphonic Prelude for Orchestra
Orchestral Poem in A minor
(R.C.M. Studentship ends.)
“The Princess Maleine” Orchestral Poem
Psalm xlii for Chorus and Orchestra (Mus.Bac.work.)
Rhapsody in C sharp minor for Piano
Sonata in G minor for Violin and Piano
(Apprenticeship period ends)
1908 Phantasy Trio in A minor (published)
1909 Sonata in D minor for Piano and Violin (Lately reissued by Messrs. Augener
1910 Songs of a Wayfarer (published)
1912-15 “Decorations” for Piano (Augener)
“Marigold” Impressions for Voice and Piano
“The Forgotten Rite,” Prelude for Orchestra
Trio in E minor for Piano, Violin, and ‘Cello (in the press; Augener)
“Rhapsody” for Piano (in press; Augener)
Also many Songs and Pieces for Piano, for Organ, for Violin, Church Music, Part-Songs etc.
Unquestionably, one of Mr. Ireland’s finest works is the Sonata in D minor for Violin and Pianoforte, a review of which appears in another column. Of this fine work, The Times says: “It ought to be heard several times before it can be fully understood. Mr. Ireland is a writer who eschews the superficial and obvious, and has clearly much to say that is worth saying.” The Morning Post speaking of the Sonata, says: “It appeals to highly cultivated musical opinions. It is strong in character, resourceful, and consistent in style.” “This Sonata,” the Pall Mall considers, “is quite one of the most important works of its kind heard in recent years, and it is to be hoped the composer will continue to add to the somewhat slender store of serious chamber music of the British School.” The late Mr. Karlyle wrote in The Star: “Delicacy, lucidity, and tonal charm, are qualities inherent in the music. Coherence of ideas is apparent in the three movements, which are cleverly and definitely contrasted in mood. There is a strong vein of temperament in every one.”
Mr. Ireland’s latest pianoforte composition (Three Decorations) has just been issued by Messrs. Augener.
His new trio was to receive its first performance at the hands of the English Trio (Beatrice Langley, John Ireland and C. Warwick-Evans) on June 29. We hope to give a review of the work in our next issue.
The Monthly Musical Record July 1, 1915
Thursday, 15 May 2008
Charles L. Graves in his somewhat hagiographical biography writes:-
“Motoring provided him with an ever-increasing variety of exciting experiences. In June 1906, writing to his son-in-law Plunket Greene about a proposed concert at Scarborough at which the alternatives were Job or "The Love that casteth out Fear ", he announces that the Panhard had broken down, and on October 22, after discussing chauffeurs and the Audit dinner at Highnam, he goes on:
“We were nearly finished off coming up to town in the Gladiator yesterday. The roads were just awful and we had no non-skids. She ran clean out of control four times; at Cheltenham clean off the road on to the side-walk between a couple of trees, and at Uxbridge she turned clean round on her axis and went backwards on to the side-walk. It's not pleasant, that sort of fun."
The most lurid account of Parry’s rashness as a motorist is given by a member of his family. He drove down the steep and winding road which leads from Savernake Forest into Marlborough at such a pace that when they reached the, bottom the chauffeur got out and was sick! There is also the story of his stopping on the road into Gloucester to take up an old woman, burdened with baskets, on the way to the market. "When they arrived she was so overcome by the speed of her transit that she had to be given restoratives. The allegation that, after acquiescing in the imposition of fines on motorists for exceeding the speed limit by his fellow-magistrates on the Gloucester bench, he was in the habit of paying the fines himself cannot be verified but is intrinsically probable.”
Hubert Parry by Charles L. Graves Volume 2 pp39f
n.b. the car is a Panhard - the driver is not CHHP!!
Tuesday, 13 May 2008
It would be easy to see Summer as a kind of parody of Delius. However, it is actually a cleverly constructed work having an obvious ternary form. Of course the skill that the composer brings with his orchestration and harmonic structures tends to blur the underlying structure. This is one of those pieces of music that need to be listened to with a kind of relaxed concentration. By this I mean that it is not to be listened to in the background whilst discussing the holiday snaps over a glass of Chianti. Neither, though, should it be an intellectual exercise. Switch off the light, open the window, enjoy the cool evening breeze and just fall into the delicious harmonies and counterpoints. Let the music wash over you. Lose yourself in the summer’s day haze. Think of Matthew Arnold’s evocative lines ‘All the live murmur of a summer’s day!’ It is nine minutes and forty seconds of heaven. There is plenty of time to evaluate and analyse next morning.
Frank Bridge must have the final word. He is quoted as saying in a letter to his wife, ‘…only if there is such a thing as rest in the soul of the listener and in the sweetness of a summer day faraway in the heart of the country will my piece Summer make any impression.’ It does, and always has, blown me over.
Saturday, 10 May 2008
Secondly I was at a Victorian Fair over the Bank Holiday weekend and amongst the treasures there was a genuine steam powered carousel – complete with a showman’s organ playing hits from Lennon & McCartney! A little bit inappropriate perhaps – but thoroughly enjoyable.
Both of these things made me think about Edward White’s The Runaway Rocking Horse -which is actually one of my favourite pieces in the ‘light’ music genre. If any work proves that the light music composer was often a superb musical craftsman, it is this piece.
My sentiments about the roundabout and the toy are reinforced by this short work. And I guess that most adults will have fond memories of a Rocking Horse even if they did not possess one. The course of the music makes it very easy imagine the wooden horse jumping off his rockers (or the cranks) and going for a canter into some romantic English landscape. The music describes the little horse playing by himself. He gallops and trots and jumps. But soon he begins to tire. There is one last frolic and then, as if by magic, he is back on his wooden frame. The piece ends with a little sigh.
Edward White was seriously involved in music making, although with little in the way of a formal musical education. He was a violinist in a variety of palm court ensembles and dance bands and eventually played on clarinet and the saxophone. He served in the RAF during the Second World War and after his demob he ran a ballroom orchestra at the Grand Spa Hotel in Bristol. Not content with just paying music, he set up a publishing company, Musicus Ltd, and finally began to compose music.
Perhaps his most famous work is Puffin’ Billy which was used as the signature tune of the BBC’s Children’s Favourites with Derek MacCulloch.
Edward White's The Runaway Rocking Horse on Hyperion
Thursday, 8 May 2008
Reef’s End is one of those pieces that is descriptive of a seascape that is always just round the next headland. When we are exploring the coastline we never quite find it or are able to pin it down. I guess the fact is that it exists only in our mind's eye. The cover of the sheet music (which I do not have a copy of to scan) pictures a rocky outcrop which is viewed against the sun setting in the west.
The work was published in 1934 and was dedicated to a certain Vivian Langrish (1894-1980) who was a contemporary of Cooke’s and a fellow pupil of Tobias Matthay.
Philip Sear points out that the score is “ marked 'andante dolente', the piece can take a slower tempo- however the score specifies a time of performance of about 3 1/2 minutes, which is what I have tried to achieve”.
Two other piano pieces by Greville Cooke that demand to be played and become part of the standard repertoire of English music are Haldon Hills and Cormorant Crag. Let us hope that either Philip or some other talented pianist takes these works up. This is music that must not be allowed to be remian dormant.
Philip Sear playing Cooke’s Reef’s End
Monday, 5 May 2008
Michael Cookson has written a great review of this CD over at MusicWeb International.
He opens with a quote from Edwin Evans writing in the Musical Times from 1919:- “Dale (1885-1943) has few works to his credit, but practically all of them have a real permanent value, and, in the path of his choice, he has certainly achieved remarkable eminence.”
He continues with a thumbnail sketch of the composer’s life and works and gives a detailed discussion of all the pieces on this disc as well as a brief look at other CDs featuring Benjamin Dale’s music.
Michael concludes his review:- “The impressive violist Roger Chase displays a rich broad tone performing on the same Montagnana instrument that belonged to Lionel Tertis. Michiko Otaki provides exemplary support. The duo are sterling advocates for the music of this neglected English composer playing throughout with assurance and expression.
This is an outstandingly performed and recorded disc of richly rewarding viola scores that deserve to be heard. I enjoyed this recording from start to finish; undoubtedly one of my Records of the Year for 2008.”
DUTTON EPOCH CDLX7204
Sunday, 4 May 2008
The Six Preludes are perhaps some of the most performed and recorded works in the Berkeley catalogue. I listened to them the other day with the score and was impressed by their craftsmanship as much as by their sound.
There are at least four recordings of this work currently available, including those by Antony Goldstone, Colin Horsley, Margaret Fingerhut and Len Vorster. Yet this attention is certainly well justified – these Preludes are excellent examples of the ‘Gallic’ influenced style that permeated Berkeley’s works. Certainly Poulenc never seems to be far way – and of course the spirit of Chopin is pervasive.
The first prelude is ‘toccata like’ with ‘horns of elfin-land’ predominating the melodic pattern. This is intricate music that balances romanticism with a neo-classical perfection. No.2 is a brooding essay where, although the melody asserts itself it seems to be shrouded in the dark. We are back in the classical world with the third prelude which is full of a bubbling vitality: it is like a mountain stream. The fourth is a 'valse triste' which could almost, but not quite, be played in the piano bar of the Savoy Hotel. It is certainly not pastiche – but it is a beautifully crafted exercise in writing a waltz. Number 5 is described in the programme notes as a ‘whistling tune’ which suggests gaiety. Yet there is something darker in the middle section of this prelude. The last is in the form of a lullaby – and a ‘baby sings the blues’ one too. Perhaps this is the most memorable of the six?
These Preludes are always approachable without being musically patronising or condescending. The Six Preludes Op.23 was composed in 1945 for Colin Horsley who gave them their first performance.
Anthony Goldstone: Britten Resonances